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Ch. 1: Lifespan vs. Healthspan

  • FastStats - Life Expectancy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/life-expectancy.htm. Published

  • March 17, 2017. Accessed March 29, 2020.

  • Roser M, Ortiz-Ospina E, Ritchie H. Life Expectancy. Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy. Published May 23, 2013. Accessed March 29, 2020.

  • Ludwig DS. Childhood Obesity — The Shape of Things to Come. New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;357(23):2325-2327. doi:10.1056/nejmp0706538.

 

Ch. 2: Physical, Mental, & Social Well-Being

  • No references in this chapter

 

Part I: What Determines Your Health

Ch. 3: You Do

  • No references in this chapter

 

Ch. 4: Determinants of Health

 

Part II: Activating Your Inner "Youngin" 

Ch. 5: Self-regulating Systems

Ch. 6: Body Structure & Mobility

  • Panula J, Pihlajamäki H, Mattila VM, et al. Mortality and cause of death in hip fracture patients aged 65 or older: a population-based study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:105. Published 2011 May 20. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-105

 

Ch. 7: Self-Healing Systems

  • Li WW. Eat to Beat Disease: the New Science of How the Body Can Heal Itself. New York: Grand Central Publishing; 2019.

  • Young VB. The role of the microbiome in human health and disease: an introduction for clinicians. BMJ. 2017;356:j831. Published 2017 Mar 15. doi:10.1136/bmj.j831

  • Singer-Englar T, Barlow G, Mathur R. Obesity, diabetes, and the gut microbiome: an updated review. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;13(1):3–15. doi:10.1080/17474124.2019.1543023

  • Young VB. The role of the microbiome in human health and disease: an introduction for clinicians. BMJ. 2017;356:j831. Published 2017 Mar 15. doi:10.1136/bmj.j831

  • Sajib S, Zahra FT, Lionakis MS, German NA, Mikelis CM. Mechanisms of angiogenesis in microbe-regulated inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Angiogenesis. 2018;21(1):1–14. doi:10.1007/s10456-017-9583-4

  • Zimmermann M, Zimmermann-Kogadeeva M, Wegmann R, Goodman AL. Mapping human microbiome drug metabolism by gut bacteria and their genes. Nature. 2019;570(7762):462–467. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1291-3

  • Obrenovich MEM. Leaky Gut, Leaky Brain?. Microorganisms. 2018;6(4):107. Published 2018 Oct 18. doi:10.3390/microorganisms6040107

  • Plaza-Diaz J, Gomez-Llorente C, Fontana L, Gil A. Modulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver by probiotics. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(42):15632–15649.

  • O'Mahony SM, Clarke G, Borre YE, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Behav Brain Res. 2015;277:32–48. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.07.027

  • Ornish D, Ornish A. Undo It!: How Simple Lifestyle Changes Can Reverse Most Chronic Diseases. New York: Ballantine Books; 2019.

  • Li WW. Eat to Beat Disease: the New Science of How the Body Can Heal Itself. New York: Grand Central Publishing; 2019.

  • John Travis, “On the Origin of the Immune System,” Science 324, no. 5927 (2009): 580-582, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/324/5927/580.

  • B. Alberts et al., “B Cells and Antibodies,” in Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th ed. (New York: Garland Science, 2002). https://www,ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26884.

  • L. A. DiPietro, “Angiogenesis and Wound Repair: When Enough is Enough,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology 100, no. 5 (2016): 979-984.

  • M. A. Gimbrone, S. B. Leapman, R. S. Cotran, and J. Folkman, “Tumor Dormancy In Vivo by Prevention of Neovascularization,” Journal of Experimental Medicine 320, no. 18 (1989): 1197-1200.

  • A. Albini et al., “Cancer Prevention by Targeting Angiogenesis,” Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 9, no. 9 (2012): 498-509.

  • Milo R, Philips R. " How quickly do different cells in the body replace themselves? Cell biology by the numbers How quickly do different cells in the body replace themselves Comments. http://book.bionumbers.org/how-quickly-do-different-cells-in-the-body-replace-themselves/. Accessed March 29, 2020.

  • B.N. Ames, M.K. Shigenaga, and T.M. Hagen, "Oxidants, Antioxidants, and the Degenerative Diseases of Aging.”

  • B. N. Ames, M. K. Shigenaga, and T. M. Hagen, “Oxidants, Antioxidants, and the Degenerative Disease of Aging,” Proceedings from the National Academy of Sciences USA 90, no. 17 (1993): 7915-7922.

  • Rizvi S, Raza ST, Mahdi F. Telomere length variations in aging and age-related diseases. Curr Aging Sci. 2014;7(3):161–167. doi:10.2174/1874609808666150122153151

  • Stephen P. Jackson and Jiri Bartek, “The DNA-Damage Response in Human Biology and Disease,” nature 461, no. 7267 (2009): 1071-1078.

  • Liska DJ. The detoxification enzyme systems. Altern Med Rev. 1998;3(3);187-198

Ch. 8: Stress Management

  • Sapolsky RM. Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: The Acclaimed Guide to Stress, Stress-Related Diseases, and Coping. New York: Henry Holt and Co.; 2004.

Healthspan
Well-Being
You Do
DoH
Sel-reg
Body Structure
Self-healing
Stress Mgmt
References

Part III: The Simple Steps

Step #1: Find Your Sense of Purpose

  • Buettner D. The Blue Zones: 9 Lessons for Living Longer from the People Whove Lived the Longest. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic; 2012.

  • Hyman M. drmarkhyman.com. drmarkhymancom. https://drhyman.com/blog/2019/07/31/podcast-ep65/. Accessed March 11, 2020.

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Vegetable, Tubers, & Roots

  • Li WW. Eat to Beat Disease: The New Science of How the Body Can Heal Itself. New York: Grand Central Publishing; 2019.

  • Domínguez R, Cuenca E, Maté-Muñoz JL, et al. Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017;9(1):43. Published 2017 Jan 6. doi:10.3390/nu9010043

  • Wightman EL, Haskell-Ramsay CF, Thompson KG, et al. Dietary nitrate modulates cerebral blood flow parameters and cognitive performance in humans: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation. Physiol Behav. 2015;149:149‐158. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.05.035

  • Morris MC, Wang Y, Barnes LL, Bennett DA, Dawson-Hughes B, Booth SL. Nutrients and bioactives in green leafy vegetables and cognitive decline. Neurology. 2017;90(3). doi:10.1212/wnl.0000000000004815.

  • Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(4):727–736. doi:10.1093/ajcn/69.4.727

  • Makki K, Deehan EC, Walter J, Bäckhed F. The Impact of Dietary Fiber on Gut Microbiota in Host Health and Disease. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;23(6):705–715. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2018.05.012

  • Holscher HD. Dietary fiber and prebiotics and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Gut Microbes. 2017;8(2):172–184. doi:10.1080/19490976.2017.1290756

  • Hiel S, Bindels LB, Pachikian BD, et al. Effects of a diet based on inulin-rich vegetables on gut health and nutritional behavior in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;109(6):1683‐1695. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqz001

  • Le Bastard Q, Chapelet G, Javaudin F, Lepelletier D, Batard E, Montassier E. The effects of inulin on gut microbial composition: a systematic review of evidence from human studies. European Journal of Clinical Microbiol Infectious Diseases. 2020;39(3):403‐413. doi:10.1007/s10096-019-03721-w

  • Pacheco-Cano RD, Salcedo-Hernández R, López-Meza JE, Bideshi DK, Barboza-Corona JE. Antimicrobial activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cultivar Avenger against pathogenic bacteria, phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast. J Appl Microbiol. 2018;124(1):126–135. doi:10.1111/jam.13629

  • Hosseini B, Berthon BS, Saedisomeolia A, et al. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on inflammatory biomarkers and immune cell populations: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;108(1):136–155. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqy082

  • M. P. Nantz et al., "Supplementation with Aged Garlic Improves Both NK and ydelta-T Cell Function and reduces the severity of Cold and Flu Symptoms: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Nutrition Intervention," Clinical Nutrition 31, no. 3 (2012): 337-344)

  • J. W. Fahey, Y. Zhang, and P. Talalay, “broccoli Sprouts: An Exceptionally Rich Source of Inducers of Enzymes that Protect against Chemical Carcinogens,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, no. 19 (1997): 10367-10372.

  • H. Ishikawa et al., “Aged Garlic Extract Prevents a Decline of NK Cell Number and Activity in Patients with Advanced Cancer,” Journal of Nutrition 136, no. 3, suppl. (2006): 816S-820S.

  • R. Yu, J. W. Park, T. Kurata, and K. L. Erickson, " Modulation of Select Immune Responses to Dietary Capsaicin," International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 68, no. 2 (1998): 114-119

  • J. Hendricks, C. Hoffman, D. W. Pascual, and M. E. Hardy, "18b-Glycyrrhetinic Acxid Delivered Orally Induces Isolated Lymphoid Follicle Maturation at the Intestinal Mucosa and Attenuates Rotavirus Shedding," PLOS One 7, no. 11 (2012): e49491)

  • Baj T, Seth R. Role of Curcumin in Regulation of TNF-α Mediated Brain Inflammatory Responses. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2018;12(1):69–77. doi:10.2174/1872213X12666180703163824

  • R. Liu et al., "Lutein and Zeaxanthin Supplementation and Association with Visual Function in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science 56, no. 1 (2014): 252-258

  • Li WW. Eat to Beat Disease: The New Science of How the Body Can Heal Itself. New York: Grand Central Publishing; 2019.

  • T. Kayashima and K. Matsubara, “Antiangiogenic Effect of Carnosic Acid and Carnosol, Neuroprotective Coumpouns in Rosemary Leaves,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 76, no. 1 (2012): 115-119.

  • M. Saberi-Karimian et al., “Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: An Important Molecular Target of Curcumin,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (2017): 1-14.

  • P. Kubatka et al., “Oregano Demonstrates Distinct Tumour-Suppressive Effects in Breast Carcinoma Model,” European Journal of Nutrition 56, no. 3 (2017): 1303-1316.

  • S. Kobayashi, T. Miyamoto, I. Kimura, and M. Kimura, “Inhibitory Effect of Isoliquiritin, a Compound in Licorice Root, on Angiogenesis In Vivo and Tube Formation In Vitro,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 18, no. 10 (1995): 1382-1386.

  • J. Lu et al. “Novel Angiogenesis Inhibitory Activity in Cinnamon Extract Blocks VEGFR2 Kinase and Downstream Signaling,” Carcinogenesis 31, no. 3 (2010): 481-488.

  • M. Traka et al., "Transcriptome Analysis of Human Colon Caco-2 Cells Exposed to Sulforaphane," Journal of Nutrition 9, no. 1 (2007): R20) and increase tumor suppressor genes

  • Jiang A, Wang X, Shan X, et al. Curcumin Reactivates Silenced Tumor Suppressor Gene RARβ by Reducing DNA Methylation. Phytother Res. 2015;29(8):1237–1245. doi:10.1002/ptr.5373

  • R. Liu et al., "Lutein and Zeaxanthin Supplementation and Association with Visual Function in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science 56, no. 1 (2014): 252-258

  • J. You et. al., "Curcumin Induces Therapeutic Angiogenesis in Diabetic Mouse Hindlimb Ischemia Model via Modulating the Function of Endothelial Progenitor Cell," Stem Cell Research and Therapy 8, no. 1 (2017): 182.)

  • The Detox Food Plan: IFM. The Institute for Functional Medicine. https://www.ifm.org/news-insights/detox-food-plan/. Accessed May 15, 2020.

  • Aga M, Iwaki K, Ueda Y, et al. Preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum (Chinese parsley) on localized lead deposition in ICR mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;77(2-3):203-208.

  • Pollan M. The Omnivores Dilemma: Young Readers Edition. Turtleback Books; 2015.

  • Gerster H. Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)?. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(3):159–173.

  • Huma, N.Anjum, M.Sehar, S.Issa Khan, M. and Hussain, S. (2008), "Effect of soaking and cooking on nutritional quality and safety of legumes", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 38 No. 6, pp. 570-577. https://doi.org/10.1108/00346650810920187

  • Okhonlaye O, Temitope O. Effect of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Composition of Soy Beans (Glycine max, L) and Acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf). Microbiology Research Journal International. 2017;21(1):1-21. doi:10.9734/mrji/2017/33263.

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Fruit

  • Sumiyoshi E, Matsuzaki K, Sugimoto N, et al. Sub-Chronic Consumption of Dark Chocolate Enhances Cognitive Function and Releases Nerve Growth Factors: A Parallel-Group Randomized Trial. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):2800. Published 2019 Nov 16. doi:10.3390/nu11112800

  • Arjmandi BH, Johnson SA, Pourafshar S, et al. Bone-Protective Effects of Dried Plum in Postmenopausal Women: Efficacy and Possible Mechanisms. Nutrients. 2017;9(5):496. Published 2017 May 14. doi:10.3390/nu9050496

  • Fraga CG , Croft KD , Kennedy DO , Tomás-Barberán FA . The effects of polyphenols and other bioactives on human health. Food Funct. 2019;10(2):514–528. doi:10.1039/c8fo01997e

  • Y. K. Lee et al., “Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) Changes Intestinal Microbial Profile,” Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 23 (2012).

  • F. P. Martin et al., “Metabolic Effects of Dark Chocolate Consumption on Energy, Gut Microbiots, and Stress-Related Metabolism in Free-Living Subjects,” Journal of Proteome Research 8, no. 12 (2009): 5568-5579.

  • S. M. Henning et al., “Pomegranate ellagitannins Stimulate the Growth of Akkermansia municiphilia In Vivo,” Anaerobe 43 (2017): 56-60.

  • F. F. Anhe et al., “A Polyphenol-Rich Cranberry Extract Protects from Diet0induced Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Intestinal Inflammation in Association with Increased Akkermansia spp. Population in the Gut Microbiota of Mice,” Gut 64, no. 6 (2015): 872-883.

  • C. Ceci et al., “Ellagic Acid Inhibits Bladder Cancer Invasiveness and In Vivo Tumor Growth,” Nutrients 8, no. 11 (2016).

  • S. J. Padayatty et al., “Vitamin C as an Antioxidant: Evaluation of Its Role in Disease Prevention,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 22, no. 1 (2003): 18-35

  • A. R. Nair, N. Mariappan, A. J. Stull, and J. Francis, “Blueberry Supplementation Attenuates Oxidative Stress within Monocytes and Modulates Immune Cell Levels in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial,” Food and Function 8, no. 11 (2017): 5118-4128.

  • L. S. McAnulty et al., “Effect of Blueberry Ingestion on Natural Killer Cell Counts, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation prior to and after 2.5 h of Running,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 36, no. 6 (2011): 976-984.

  • M. Sumi et al., “Ursolic Acid and Ursolic Acid in Commercial Dried Fruits,” Food Science and Technology Research 19, no. 1 (2013: 113-116).

  • A. K. Maurya and M. Vinayak, “Quercetin Attenuates Cell Survival, Inflammation, and Angiogenesis via Modulation of AKT Signaling in Murine T-Cell Lymphoma,” Nutrition and Cancer 69, no. 3 (2017): 470-480.

  • S. Lamy et al., “Delphinidin, a Dietary Anthocyanidin, Inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Phosphorylatio,” Cardiogenesis 27, no. 5 (2006): 989-996.

  • R. E. Graff et al., “Dietary Lycopene Intake and Risk of Prostate Cancer Defined by ERG Protein Expression,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103, no. 3 (2016): 851-860.

  • Rehman AUR. Effect of Cherry Juice on Angiogenesis Determined By Chorioallantoic Membrane (Cam) Assay. Austin J Nutr Metab. 2015; 2(5): 1032.

  • T. P. Kenny et al., “Cocoa Procyanidins Inhibit Proliferation and Angiogenic Signals in Human Dermal Microvascular Endothetlial Cells following Stimulation by Low-Level H2O2,” Experimental Biology and Medicine 229, no. 8 (2004): 765-771.

  • A. Gajowik and M. M. Dobrzynska, “The Evaluation of Protective Effect of Lycopene against Genotoxic Influence of X-Irradiation in Human Blood Lymphocytes,” Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 56, no. 4 (2017): 413-422.

  • J. K. Y. Hooi et al., “Global Prevelence of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Gastroenterology 153, no. 2 (2017): 420-429.

  • A. R. Collins, V. Harrington, J. Drew, And R. Melvin, “Nutitional Modulation of DNA Repair in Human Intervention Study,” Carcinogenesis 24, no. 3 (2003): 511-515.

  • L.-S. Wang et. al., "Abstract 163: Metabolomic Profiling Reveals a Protective Modulation on Fatty Acid Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer Patients following Consumption of Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries," Cancer Research 73 (2013): 163

  • J.H. An et al., "Effect of Rubus occidentalis Extract on Metabolic Parameters in Subjects with Prediabetes: A Proof-of-Concept, Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial," Phytotherapy Research 30, no. 10 (2016): 1634-1640

  • L. Dugo et al., “Effect of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract on Macrophage Polarization from Proinflammatory M1 to Anti-Inflammatory M2 State,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017 (2017): 6293740.

  • Gorbunov N, Petrovski G, Gurusamy N, Ray D, Kim DH, Das DK. Regeneration of infarcted myocardium with resveratrol-modified cardiac stem cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16(1):174–184. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2011.01281.x

  • S. Li, H. Bian et al., "Chlorogenic Acid Protects MSCs against Oxidative Stress by Altering FOXO Family Genes and Activating Intrinsic Pathway," European Journal of Pharmacology 674, no. 2-3 (2012): 65-72

  • Q. Deng, Y. X. Tian, and J. Liang, “Mangiferin Inhibits Cell Migration and Invasion through Rac1/WAVE2 Signaling in Breast Cancer,” Cytotechnology 70, no. 2 (2018): 593-601.

  • M. Du et al., “Mangiferin Prevents the Growth of Gastric Carcinoma by Blocking the PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway,” Anticancer Drugs 29, no. 1 (2018): 167-175.

  • H. L. Wang et al., “Mangiferin Facilitates Islet Regeneration and Beta-Cell Proliferation through Upregulation of Cell Cycle and Beta-Cell Regeneration Regulators,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 15, no. 5 (2014): 9016-9035.

  • Y. Bai et al., “Mangiferin Enhances Endochondrial Ossification-Based Bone Repair in Massive Bone Defect by Inducing Autophagy through Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway,” FASEB Journal 32, no. 8 (2018).

  • S. J. Padayatty et al., “Vitamin C as an Antioxidant: Evaluation of Its Role in Disease Prevention,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 22, no. 1 (2003): 18-35

  • Fox M, Meyer-Gerspach AC, Wendebourg MJ, et al. Effect of cocoa on the brain and gut in healthy subjects: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2019;121(6):654–661. doi:10.1017/S0007114518003689

  • The Detox Food Plan: IFM. The Institute for Functional Medicine. https://www.ifm.org/news-insights/detox-food-plan/. Accessed June 14, 2020.

  • Kuebler U, Arpagaus A, Meister RE, et al. Dark chocolate attenuates intracellular pro-inflammatory reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in men: A randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2016;57:200–208. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2016.04.006

 

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat!  - Products from Healthy Animals

  • Hoffman JR, Falvo MJ. Protein - Which is Best?. J Sports Sci Med. 2004;3(3):118‐130. Published 2004 Sep 1.

  • Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J. 2010;9:10. Published 2010 Mar 10. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-10

  • D. J. Lisko, G. P. Johnston, and C. G. Johnston, “Effects of Dietary Yogurt on the Healthy Human Gastrointestinal (GI) Microbiome,” Microorganisms 5, no. 1 (2017).

  • K. Van Hoorde, M. Heyndrickx, P. Vandamme, and G. Huys, “Influence of Pasteurization, Brining Conditions, and Production Environment on the Microbiota of Artisan Gouda-Type Cheeses,” Food Microbiology 27, no. 3 (2010): 425-433.

  • Zaheer, K. (2015) An Updated Review on Chicken Eggs: Production, Consumption, Management Aspects and Nutritional Benefits to Human Health. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 1208-1220. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.613127.

  • Andersen CJ. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation. Nutrients. 2015;7(9):7889‐7913. Published 2015 Sep 16. doi:10.3390/nu7095372

  • Rennard BO, Ertl RF, Gossman GL, Robbins RA, Rennard SI. Chicken Soup Inhibits Neutrophil Chemotaxis In Vitro. Chest. 2000;118(4):1150-1157. doi:10.1378/chest.118.4.1150.

  • T. J. Koivu-Tikkanen, V. Ollilainen, and V. I. Piironen, “Determination of Phylloquinone and Menaquinones in Animal Products with Fluorescence Detection after Postcolumn Reduction with Metallic Zinc,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, no. 12 (2000): 6325-6331.

  • C. Vermeer et al., “menaquinone Content of Cheese,” Nutrients 10, no. 4 (2018).

  • Fretts AM, Howard BV, Siscovick DS, et al. Processed Meat, but Not Unprocessed Red Meat, Is Inversely Associated with Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Strong Heart Family Study. J Nutr. 2016;146(10):2013‐2018. doi:10.3945/jn.116.234922

  • Kasielski M, Eusebio MO, Pietruczuk M, Nowak D. The relationship between peripheral blood mononuclear cells telomere length and diet - unexpected effect of red meat. Nutr J. 2016;15(1):68. Published 2016 Jul 14. doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0189-2

  • Mazucanti CH, Cabral-Costa JV, Vasconcelos AR, Andreotti DZ, Scavone C, Kawamoto EM. Longevity Pathways (mTOR, SIRT, Insulin/IGF-1) as Key Modulatory Targets on Aging and Neurodegeneration. Curr Top Med Chem. 2015;15(21):2116‐2138. doi:10.2174/1568026615666150610125715

  • Weichhart T. mTOR as Regulator of Lifespan, Aging, and Cellular Senescence: A Mini-Review. Gerontology. 2018;64(2):127‐134. doi:10.1159/000484629

  • Li W. Eggs: Health Food or Best Avoided? Dr William Li. https://drwilliamli.com/eggs-healthy-or-unhealthy/. Published April 23, 2019. Accessed March 14, 2020.

  • Beuttner, D., 2020. Food Guidelines - Blue Zones. [online] Blue Zones. Available at: <https://www.bluezones.com/recipes/food-guidelines/> [Accessed 14 March 2020].

  • Brannon PM, Carpenter TO, Fernandez JR, Gilsanz V, Gould JB, Hall KE, Hui SL, Lupton JR, Mennella J, Miller NJ, Osganian SK, Sellmeyer DE, Suchy FJ, Wolf MA. NIH Consensus Development Conference Statement: Lactose Intolerance and Health. NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 2010 Feb 24;27(2).

  • Uribarri J, Woodruff S, Goodman S, et al. Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2010;110(6). doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.018.

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Wild-caught Seafood

  • Andruchow ND, Konishi K, Shatenstein B, Bohbot VD. A lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids predicts better hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and cognitive status in older adults. Neuropsychology. 2017;31(7):724–734. doi:10.1037/neu0000373

  • D. Mozaffarian et al., “Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain omega-3 Fatty Acids and Total and Cause-specific Mortality in Older Adults: A Cohort Study,” Annals of Internal Medicine 158, no. 7 (2013): 515-525.

  • Costantini L, Molinari R, Farinon B, Merendino N. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(12):2645. Published 2017 Dec 7. doi:10.3390/ijms18122645

  • J. Y. Cheng, L. T. Ng, C. L. Lin, and T. R. Jan, “Pacific Oyster-Derived Polysaccharides Enhance Antigen-Specific T Helper (Th)1 Immunity In Vitro and In Vivo,” Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 35, no. 2 (2013): 235-240.

  • S. A. Messina and R. Dawson Jr., “Attenuation of Oxidative Damage to DNA by Taurine and Taurine Analogs,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 483 (2000): 355-367

  • Calder PC. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man. Biochem Soc Trans. 2017;45(5):1105–1115. doi:10.1042/BST20160474

  • Block RC, Dier U, Calderonartero P, et al. The Effects of EPA+DHA and Aspirin on Inflammatory Cytokines and Angiogenesis Factors. World J Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;2(1):14–19. doi:10.4236/wjcd.2012.21003

  • C. Sakai et al., “Fish Oil Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Oxidative Stress-Induced DNA Damage in Vascular Endothelial Cells,” PLOS One 12, no. 11 (2017): e0187934.

  • J. Turgeon et al., “Fish Oil-Enriched Diet Protects against Ischemia by Improving Angiogenesis, Endothelial Progenitor Cell Function, and Postnatal Neovascularization,” Atherosclerosis 229, no. 2 (2013):295-303.

  • Delarue,J, Matzinger O, Binnert C, et al. Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men. Diabetes Metab 2003;29:289-295.

 

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Nuts & Seeds

  • W. G. Christen et al., “Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Fish Intake and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Women,” Archives of Opthalmology 129, no. 7 (2011): 921-929.

  • Del Gobbo LC, Falk MC, Feldman R, Lewis K, Mozaffarian D. Effects of tree nuts on blood lipids, apolipoproteins, and blood pressure: systematic review, meta-analysis, and dose-response of 61 controlled intervention trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(6):1347–1356. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.110965

  • Bourre, J.M. Brain lipids and aging. In: For the Ageing Population. Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2009:219-251. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845691936500129. Accessed April 9, 2020.

  • C. Bamberger et al., “A Walnut-Enriched Diet Affects Gut Microbiome in Healthy Caucasian Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled Trial,” Nutrients 10, no. 2 (2018).

  • Ros E. Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients. 2010;2(7):652–682. doi:10.3390/nu2070652

  • Majdalawieh AF, Massri M, Nasrallah GK. A comprehensive review on the anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action of sesamin, a lignan in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum). Eur J Pharmacol. 2017;815:512–521. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.10.020

  • Li WW. Eat to Beat Disease: the New Science of How the Body Can Heal Itself. New York: Grand Central Publishing; 2019.

  • J. X. Kang and A. Liu, “The Role of the Tissue Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Regulating Tumor Angiogenesis,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews 32, no. 1-2 (2013): 201-210.

  • Tucker LA. Consumption of Nuts and Seeds and Telomere Length in 5,582 Men and Women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(3):233–240. doi:10.1007/s12603-017-0876-5

  • Ling L, Gu S, Cheng Y. Resveratrol activates endogenous cardiac stem cells and improves myocardial regeneration following acute myocardial infarction. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15(3):1188–1194. doi:10.3892/mmr.2017.6143

  • Liu QS, Li SR, Li K, Li X, Yin X, Pang Z. Ellagic acid improves endogenous neural stem cells proliferation and neurorestoration through Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017;61(3):10.1002/mnfr.201600587. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201600587

 

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Legumes

  • J. M. Monk et al., “Navy and Black Bean Supplementation Primes the Colonic Mucosal Microenvironment to Improve Gut Health,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 49 (2017): 89-100.

  • J. M. Monk et al., “Navy and Black Bean Supplementation Primes the Colonic Mucosal Microenvironment to Improve Gut Health,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 49 (2017): 89-100.

  • Zhu F, Du B, Xu B. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018;58(8):1260–1270. doi:10.1080/10408398.2016.1251390

  • T. Fotsis et al., “Genistein, a Dietary-derived Inhibito of Vitro Angiogenesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90, no. 7 suppl. (1993): 2690-2694.

  • S. H. Lee, J. Lee, M. H. Jung, and Y. M. Lee, “Glyceollins, a Novel Class of Soy Phytoalexins, Inhibit Angiogenesis by Blocking the VEGF and bFGF Signaling Pathways,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 57, no. 2 (2013): 225-234.

  • M. Z. Fang et al., “Reversal of Hypermethylation and Reactivation pf p16INK4a, RARbeta, and MGMT Genes by Genistein and Other Isoflavones from Soy,” Clinical Cancer Research 11, no. 19, pt. 1 (2005): 7033-7041.

  • X. O. Shu et al., “Soy Food Intake and Breast Cancer Survival,” JAMA 302, no. 22 (2009): 2437-2443.

  • C. C. Applegate et al., “Soy Consumption and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Nutrients 10, no. 1 (2018)

  • Margier M, Georgé S, Hafnaoui N, et al. Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Content of Legumes: Characterization of Pulses Frequently Consumed in France and Effect of the Cooking Method. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1668. Published 2018 Nov 4. doi:10.3390/nu10111668

  • Hoffman JR, Falvo MJ. Protein - Which is Best?. J Sports Sci Med. 2004;3(3):118-130. Published 2004 Sep 1.

  • Huma, N.Anjum, M.Sehar, S.Issa Khan, M. and Hussain, S. (2008), "Effect of soaking and cooking on nutritional quality and safety of legumes", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 38 No. 6, pp. 570-577. https://doi.org/10.1108/00346650810920187

  • S. Lecomte, F. Demay, F Ferriere, and F. Pakdel, “Phytochemicals Targetinf Estrogen Receptors: Beneficial Rather than Adverse Effects?” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18, no.7 (2017): E1381.

 

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Fungus

  • Cardwell G, Bornman JF, James AP, Black LJ. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2018;10(10):1498. Published 2018 Oct 13. doi:10.3390/nu10101498

  • X. Jiang et al., "The Anti-Fatigue Activities of Tubor Melanosporum in a Mouse Model," Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 15, no. 3 (2018): 3066-3074

  • W. Rssouw and L. Korsten, “Cultivable Microbiome of Fresh White Button Mushrooms,” Letters in Applied Microbiology 64, no. 2 (2017): 164-170.

  • J. Varshney et al., “White Button Mushrooms Increase Microbial Diversity and Accelerate the Resolution of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice,” Journal of Nutrition 143, no. 4 (2013): 526-532.

  • S. C. Jeong, S. R. Koyyalamudi, and G. Pang, “Dietary Intake of Agaricus bisporus White Button Mushroom Accelerates Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion in Healthy Volunteers,” Nutrition 28, no. 5 (2010): 527-531.

  • K. I. Minato, L. C. Laan, A. Ohara, and I. can Die, “Pleurotus Citrinopileatus Polysaccharide Induces Activation of Human Dendritic Cells through Multiple Pathways,” International Immunopharmacology 40 (2016): 156-163.

  • H. H. Chang et al., “Oral Administration of an Enoki Mushroom Protein FVE Activates Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Induces Anti-tumor Activity against Murine Hepatocellular Carcinoma,” International Immunopharmacology 10, no. 2 (2010): 239-246.

  • V. Vetcicka and J. Vetvickova, “Immune-Enhancing Effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) Extracts,” Annals of Translational Medicine 2, no. 2 (2014): 14.

  • G. Pacioni et al., "Truffles Contain Endocannabinoid Metabolic Enzymes and Anandamide," Phytochemistry 110 (2015): 104-110

  • N. Acharya et al., "Endocannabinoid System Acts as a Regulator of Immune Homeostasis in the Gut," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 114, no. 19 (2017): 5005-5010

  • B. M. Fonseca, G. Correia-Da-Sylva, and N. A. Teixiera, "Cannabinoid-Induced Cell Death in Endometrial Cancer Cells: Involvement of TRPV1 Receptors in Apoptosis," Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry 74, no. 2 (2018)

  • X. Jiang et al., "The Anti-Fatigue Activities of Tubor Melanosporum in a Mouse Model," Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 15, no. 3 (2018): 3066-3074

 

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Fermented Foods

  • Erdman SE, Poutahidis T. Probiotic 'glow of health': it's more than skin deep. Benef Microbes. 2014;5(2):109–119. doi:10.3920/BM2013.0042

  • Park KY, Jeong JK, Lee YE, Daily JW 3rd. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food. J Med Food. 2014;17(1):6–20. doi:10.1089/jmf.2013.3083

  • Homayoni Rad A, Vaghef Mehrabany E, Alipoor B, Vaghef Mehrabany L. The Comparison of Food and Supplement as Probiotic Delivery Vehicles. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016;56(6):896‐909. doi:10.1080/10408398.2012.733894

  • Poutahidis T, Kearney SM, Levkovich T, et al. Microbial symbionts accelerate wound healing via the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78898. Published 2013 Oct 30. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078898

  • Athiyyah AF, Darma A, Ranuh R, et al. Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 activates intestinal stem cells in a rodent model. Benef Microbes. 2018;9(5):755–760. doi:10.3920/BM2017.0118

  • Poutahidis T, Kearney SM, Levkovich T, et al. Microbial symbionts accelerate wound healing via the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78898. Published 2013 Oct 30. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078898

 

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Oil

  • Thomson AB, Keelan M, Garg M, Clandinin MT. Dietary effects of omega 3-fatty acids on intestinal transport function. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1988;66(8):985-992. doi:10.1139/y88-162

  • Costantini L, Molinari R, Farinon B, Merendino N. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(12):2645. Published 2017 Dec 7. doi:10.3390/ijms18122645

  • Teng M, Zhao YJ, Khoo AL, Yeo TC, Yong QW, Lim BP. Impact of coconut oil consumption on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2020;78(3):249-259. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuz074

  • Melguizo-Rodríguez L, Manzano-Moreno FJ, Illescas-Montes R, et al. Bone Protective Effect of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds by Modulating Osteoblast Gene Expression. Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1722. Published 2019 Jul 25. doi:10.3390/nu11081722

  • Dupont J, Dedeyne L, Dalle S, Koppo K, Gielen E. The role of omega-3 in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2019;31(6):825-836. doi:10.1007/s40520-019-01146-1

  • Costantini L, Molinari R, Farinon B, Merendino N. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(12):2645. Published 2017 Dec 7. doi:10.3390/ijms18122645

  • Marcelino G, Hiane PA, Freitas KC, et al. Effects of Olive Oil and Its Minor Components on Cardiovascular Diseases, Inflammation, and Gut Microbiota. Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1826. Published 2019 Aug 7. doi:10.3390/nu11081826

  • Aparicio-Soto M, Sánchéz-Hidalgo M, Cárdeno A, et al. The phenolic fraction of extra virgin olive oil modulates the activation and the inflammatory response of T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and healthy donors. Mol Nutr Food Res.

  • Servili M, Sordini B, Esposto S, et al. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Antioxidants (Basel). 2013;3(1):1–23. Published 2013 Dec 20. doi:10.3390/antiox3010001

  • Moosavian SP, Arab A, Mehrabani S, Moradi S, Nasirian M. The effect of omega-3 and vitamin E on oxidative stress and inflammation: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [published online ahead of print, 2019 Aug 23]. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019;1-11. doi:10.1024/0300-9831/a000599

  • Pupala SS, Rao S, Strunk T, Patole S. Topical application of coconut oil to the skin of preterm infants: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr. 2019;178(9):1317-1324. doi:10.1007/s00431-019-03407-7

  • Calabriso N, Massaro M, Scoditti E, et al. Extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols modulates VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing NADPH oxidase activity and expression. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;28:19–29.

  • A. P. Simopoulos, “The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Diseases,” Experimental Biology and Medicine 233, no. 6 (2008): 674-688.

  • Cordero JG, García-Escudero R, Avila J, Gargini R, García-Escudero V. Benefit of Oleuropein Aglycone for Alzheimer's Disease by Promoting Autophagy. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:5010741. Published 2018 Feb 20. doi:10.1155/2018/5010741

  • Rigacci S. Olive Oil Phenols as Promising Multi-targeting Agents Against Alzheimer's Disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015;863:1–20. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-18365-7_1

  • Barnard ND, Bunner AE, Agarwal U. Saturated and trans fats and dementia: a systematic review. Neurobiol Aging. 2014;35 Suppl 2:S65-S73. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.02.030

  • Soto-Alarcon SA, Valenzuela R, Valenzuela A, Videla LA. Liver Protective Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil: Interaction between Its Chemical Composition and the Cell-signaling Pathways Involved in Protection. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2018;18(1):75–84.

 

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Certain Grains

  • Katina K, Arendt E, Liukkonen K-H, Autio K, Flander L, Poutanen K. Potential of sourdough for healthier cereal products. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2005;16(1-3):104-112. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2004.03.008.

  • Q. Mu, V. J. Tavella, and X. M. Luo, “Role of Lactobacillus reuteri in Human Health and Diseases,” Frontiers in Microbiology 9, no. 757 (2018).

  • Cagno RD, Angelis MD, Auricchio S, et al. Sourdough Bread Made from Wheat and Nontoxic Flours and Started with Selected Lactobacilli Is Tolerated in Celiac Sprue Patients. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2004;70(2):1088-1096. doi:10.1128/aem.70.2.1088-1096.2004.

  • J. R. Lakritz et al., “Beneficial Bacteria Stimulate Host Immune Cells to Counteract Dietary and Genetic Predisposition to Mammary Cancer in Mice,” International Journal of Cancer 135, no. 3 (2014): 529-540.

  • Coda R, Rizzello CG, Pinto D, Gobbetti M. Selected lactic acid bacteria synthesize antioxidant peptides during sourdough fermentation of cereal flours. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78(4):1087-1096. doi:10.1128/AEM.06837-11

  • Michalska A, Ceglinska A, Amarowicz R, Piskula MK, Szawara-Nowak D, Zielinski H. Antioxidant contents and antioxidative properties of traditional rye breads. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(3):734-740. doi:10.1021/jf062425w

  • C. Perez-Ternero et al., “Ferulic Acid, a Bioactive Compound of Rice Bran, Improves Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Dynamics in Mice and in Human Mononuclear Cells,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 48 (2017):51-61.

  • Poutahidis T, Kearney SM, Levkovich T, et al. Microbial symbionts accelerate wound healing via the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78898. Published 2013 Oct 30. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078898

  • Davis W. Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. New York: Rodale; 2019.

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Eating Strategies

  • Power 9®. Blue Zones. https://www.bluezones.com/2016/11/power-9/. Published June 2, 2020. Accessed June 20, 2020.

  • Longo V. The Longevity Diet: Slow Aging, Fight Disease, Optimize Weight. New York: Avery, an imprint of Penguin Random House; 2019.

  • Carmona JJ, Michan S. Biology of Healthy Aging and Longevity. Rev Invest Clin. 2016;68(1):7-16.

  • Holderbaum M, Casagrande DS, Sussenbach S, Buss C. Effects of very low calorie diets on liver size and weight loss in the preoperative period of bariatric surgery: a systematic review. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2018;14(2):237-244. doi:10.1016/j.soard.2017.09.531

  • Cho Y, Hong N, Kim KW, et al. The Effectiveness of Intermittent Fasting to Reduce Body Mass Index and Glucose Metabolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Clin Med. 2019;8(10):1645. Published 2019 Oct 9. doi:10.3390/jcm8101645

  • Genton L, Cani P, Schrenzel J. Alterations of gut barrier and gut microbiota in food restriction, food deprivation and protein-energy wasting. Clinical Nutrition. 2015;34(3):341-349. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.10.003.

  • Aldewachi HS, Wright NA, Appleton DR, Watson AJ: The effect of starvation and refeeding on cell population kinetics in the rat small bowel mucosa. J Anat 119:105-121, 1975

  • Christovam AC, Theodoro V, Mendonça FAS, Esquisatto MAM, Dos Santos GMT, do Amaral MEC. Activators of SIRT1 in wound repair: an animal model study. Arch Dermatol Res. 2019;311(3):193–201. doi:10.1007/s00403-019-01901-4

  • M. Igarashi and L. Guarente, "mTORC1 and SIRT1 Cooperate to Foster Expansion of Gut Adult Stem Cells during Caloric Restriction," Cell 166, no. 2 (2016): 436-450

  • Suzanne Wu, “Fasting Triggers Stem Cell Regeneration of Damaged, Old Immune System,” USC New, June 5, 2014, https://news.usc.edu/63669/fasting -triggers-stem-cell-regeneration-of-damaged-old-immune-system.

  • C. W. Cheng et al., “Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression,” Cell Stem Cell 14, no.6 (2014): 810-823

  • Bagherniya M, Butler AE, Barreto GE, Sahebkar A. The effect of fasting or calorie restriction on autophagy induction: A review of the literature. Ageing Res Rev. 2018;47:183-197. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2018.08.004

  • Araya-Quintanilla F, Celis-Rosati A, Rodriguez-Leiva C, Silva-Navarro C, Silva-Pinto Y, Toro-Jeria B. Efectividad de la dieta cetogenica en niños con epilepsia refractaria: revision sistematica [Effectiveness of a ketogenic diet in children with refractory epilepsy: a systematic review]. Rev Neurol. 2016;62(10):439–448.

  • Avgerinos KI, Egan JM, Mattson MP, Kapogiannis D. Medium Chain Triglycerides induce mild ketosis and may improve cognition in Alzheimer's disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis of human studies. Ageing Res Rev. 2020;58:101001. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2019.101001

  • Castellana M, Conte E, Cignarelli A, et al. Efficacy and safety of very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in patients with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2019 Nov 9]. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2019;10.1007/s11154-019-09514-y. doi:10.1007/s11154-019-09514-y

  • Fan Y, Wang H, Liu X, Zhang J, Liu G. Crosstalk between the Ketogenic Diet and Epilepsy: From the Perspective of Gut Microbiota. Mediators Inflamm. 2019;2019:8373060. Published 2019 Jun 3. doi:10.1155/2019/8373060

  • Paoli A, Mancin L, Bianco A, Thomas E, Mota JF, Piccini F. Ketogenic Diet and Microbiota: Friends or Enemies?. Genes (Basel). 2019;10(7):534. Published 2019 Jul 15. doi:10.3390/genes10070534

  • Pinto A, Bonucci A, Maggi E, Corsi M, Businaro R. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ketogenic Diet: New Perspectives for Neuroprotection in Alzheimer's Disease. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018;7(5):63. Published 2018 Apr 28. doi:10.3390/antiox7050063

  • Woolf EC, Syed N, Scheck AC. Tumor Metabolism, the Ketogenic Diet and β-Hydroxybutyrate: Novel Approaches to Adjuvant Brain Tumor Therapy. Front Mol Neurosci. 2016;9:122. Published 2016 Nov 16. doi:10.3389/fnmol.2016.00122

  • Paoli A, Mancin L, Bianco A, Thomas E, Mota JF, Piccini F. Ketogenic Diet and Microbiota: Friends or Enemies?. Genes (Basel). 2019;10(7):534. Published 2019 Jul 15. doi:10.3390/genes10070534

  • Cheng CW, Biton M, Haber AL, et al. Ketone Body Signaling Mediates Intestinal Stem Cell Homeostasis and Adaptation to Diet. Cell. 2019;178(5):1115–1131.e15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.07.048

  • Livingstone, M. Barbara E., and L. Kirsty Pourshahidi. "Portion size and obesity." Advances in nutrition 5.6 (2014): 829-834.

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Supplements

  • Lamming DW, Ye L, Sabatini DM, Baur JA. Rapalogs and mTOR inhibitors as anti-aging therapeutics. J Clin Invest. 2013;123(3):980-989. doi:10.1172/JCI64099

  • Lamming DW. Inhibition of the Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)-Rapamycin and Beyond. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2016;6(5):a025924. Published 2016 May 2. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a025924

 

Step #2: Eat, papa, Eat! - Foods to Limit

  • E. Y. Huang et al., “The Role of Diet in Triggering Human Inflammatory Disorders in the Modern Age,” Microbes and Infection 15, no. 12 (2013): 765-774.

  • Gunnars K. How to Optimize Your Omega-6 to Omega-3 Ratio. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/optimize-omega-6-omega-3-ratio#section3. Accessed June 22, 2020.

  • Choo VL, Viguiliouk E, Blanco Mejia S, et al. Food sources of fructose-containing sugars and glycaemic control: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies [published correction appears in BMJ. 2019 Oct 9;367:l5524]. BMJ. 2018;363:k4644. Published 2018 Nov 21. doi:10.1136/bmj.k4644

  • DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe JH, Wilson WL Sugar addiction: is it real? A narrative review British Journal of Sports Medicine 2018;52:910-913.

  • Van Name M, Giannini C, Santoro N, et al. Blunted suppression of acyl-ghrelin in response to fructose ingestion in obese adolescents: the role of insulin resistance. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015;23(3):653–661. doi:10.1002/oby.21019

  • Yau AM, McLaughlin J, Maughan RJ, Gilmore W, Evans GH. The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men. Nutrients. 2017;9(3):258. Published 2017 Mar 10. doi:10.3390/nu9030258

  • Ter Horst KW, Serlie MJ. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Nutrients. 2017;9(9):981. Published 2017 Sep 6. doi:10.3390/nu9090981

  • Spencer M, Gupta A, Dam LV, Shannon C, Menees S, Chey WD. Artificial Sweeteners: A Systematic Review and Primer for Gastroenterologists. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;22(2):168–180. doi:10.5056/jnm15206

  • Romo-Romo A, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Brito-Córdova GX, Gómez-Díaz RA, Almeda-Valdes P. Sucralose decreases insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;108(3):485–491. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqy152

  • Gugliucci A. Formation of Fructose-Mediated Advanced Glycation End Products and Their Roles in Metabolic and Inflammatory Diseases. Adv Nutr. 2017;8(1):54–62. Published 2017 Jan 17. doi:10.3945/an.116.013912

  • Aragno M, Mastrocola R. Dietary Sugars and Endogenous Formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts: Emerging Mechanisms of Disease. Nutrients. 2017;9(4):385. Published 2017 Apr 14. doi:10.3390/nu9040385

  • C. W. Leung et al., "Soda and Cell Aging: Associations between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Leukocytetelomere Length in Healthy Adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys," American Journal of Public Health 104, no. 12 (2014): 2425-2431

  • H. Kang et al., "High Glucose-Induced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction," Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research 14, no. 5 (2017): 381-394

  • J. Wang et al., "High Glucose Inhibits Osteogenic Differentiation through the BMP Signaling Pathway in Bone Mesenchymal Cells in Mice," EXCLI Journal 12 (2013): 584-597

  • H. Y. Choi et al., " High Glucose Causes Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Dystfunction by Promoting Mitochondrial Fission: Role of GLUT1 Blocker," Biomolecules and TherapeuticsI 24, no. 4 (2016): 363-370

  • Leech B, McIntyre E, Steel A, Sibbritt D. Risk factors associated with intestinal permeability in an adult population: A systematic review. Int J Clin Pract. 2019;73(10):e13385. doi:10.1111/ijcp.13385

  • Janochova K, Haluzik M, Buzga M. Visceral fat and insulin resistance - what we know?. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2019;163(1):19-27. doi:10.5507/bp.2018.062

  • Hyman M. The Doctor's Pharmacy. The Doctor's Pharmacy. June 2019. https://drmarkhyman.lnk.to/DrDavidPerlmutter. Accessed April 7, 2020.

  • Sharma, Chetan, et al. "Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries." Journal of food science and technology 52.12 (2015): 7561-7576.

  • Li WW. Eat to Beat Disease: the New Science of How the Body Can Heal Itself. New York: Grand Central Publishing; 2019.

  • A. Perfilyev et al., “ Impact of Polyunsaturated and Saturated Fat Overfeeding on the DNA-Methylation Pattern in Human Adipose Tissue: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105, no. 4 (2017): 991-1000.

  • J. A. Nettleton et al., “Dietary Patterns, Food Groups, and Telomere Length in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA),” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88, no. 5 (2008): 1405-1412.

  • A. M. Fretts et al., “Processed Meat, but Not Unprocessed Red Meat, Is Inversely Associated with Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Strong Heart Family Study,” Journal of Nutrition 146, no. 10 (2016): 2013-2018.

  • J. A. Nettleton et al., "Dietary Patterns, Food Groups, and Telomere Length in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88, no. 5 (2008): 1405-1412

  • M. D. Mana, E Y. Kuo, and O. H. Yilmaz, "Dietary Regulation of Adult Stem Cells," Current Stem Cell Reports 3, no. 1 (2017): 1-8

  • H. R. Park et al., "A High-Fat Diet Impairs Neurogenesis: Involvement of Lipid Peroxidation and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor," Neuroscience Letters 482, no. 3 (2010): 235-239

  • Vafeiadou, Katerina, et al. "A review of the evidence for the effects of total dietary fat, saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on vascular function, endothelial progenitor cells and microparticles." British Journal of Nutrition 107.3 (2012): 303-324.

  • Norris, Jill M., et al. "Risk of celiac disease autoimmunity and timing of gluten introduction in the diet of infants at increased risk of disease." Jama 293.19 (2005): 2343-2351.

  • Fasano, Alessio, et al. "Nonceliac gluten sensitivity." Gastroenterology 148.6 (2015): 1195-1204.

Purpose
Veggies
Fruit
Animals
Seafood
Nuts
Legumes
Fungus
Fermented Foods
Oil
Grains
Eating Strategies
Supplements
Foods to Limit

Step #3: Drink Water

  • Eva Bianconi et al., “An Estimation of the Number of Cells in the Human Body,” Annals of Human Biology 40, no. 6 (2013).

  • Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania, et al. "Modulatory effect of coffee fruit extract on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects." British Journal of Nutrition 110.3 (2013): 420-425.

  • Zhang ZF, Yang JL, Jiang HC, Lai Z, Wu F, Liu ZX. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(12):e6437. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000006437

  • H. Sun et al., “The Modulatory Effects of Polyphenols from Green Tea, Oolong Tea, and Black Tea on Human Intestinal Microbiota In Vitro,” Journal of Food Science and Technology 55, no. 1 (2018): 399-407.

  • M. Larrosa et al., “Effect of Low Dose of Dietary Resveratrol on Colon Microbiota, Inflammation, and Tissue Damage in a DSS-Induced Colitis Rat Model,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57, no. 6 (2009): 2211-2220.

  • A. Jimenez-Giron et al., “Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake,” Metabolites 4, no. 4 (2014): 1101-1118.

  • D. Wu, J. Wang, M. Pae, and S. N. Meydani, “Green Tea EGCG, T Cells, and T Cell-Mediated Autoimmune Diseases,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine 33, no. 1 (2012):107-118.

  • M. R. Olthof, P. C. Hollman, P. L. Zock, and M. B. Katan, “Consumption of High Doses of Chlorogenic Acid, Present in Coffee, or of Black Tea Increases Plasma Total Homocysteine Concentration in Humans,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, no. 3 (2001): 532-538.

  • M. Larrosa et al., “Effect of Low Dose of Dietary Resveratrol on Colon Microbiota, Inflammation, and Tissue Damage in a DSS-Induced Colitis Rat Model,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57, no. 6 (2009): 2211-2220.

  • M. M. Markoski et al., “Molecular Properties of Red Wine Compounds and Cardiometabiolic Benefits,” Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 9 (2016): 51-57

  • A. Albini et al., “Mechanisms of the Antiangiogenic Activity by the Hop Flavonoid Xanthohumol: NF-kappaB and Akt Targets,” FASEB Journal 20, no. 3 (2006): 527-529.

  • M. R. Sartippour et al., “Green Tea Inhibits Vasceular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Induction in Human Breast Cancer Cells,” Journal of Nutrition 132, no. 8 (2002): 2307-2311.

  • Mills CE, Flury A, Marmet C, et al. Mediation of coffee-induced improvements in human vascular function by chlorogenic acids and its metabolites: Two randomized, controlled, crossover intervention trials. Clin Nutr. 2017;36(6):1520-1529. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2016.11.013

  • W. J. Lee and B. T. Zhu, “Inhibition of DNA Methylation by Caffeic Acid and Chlorogenic Acid, Two Common Catechol-Containing Coffee Polyphenols,” Carcinogenesis 27, no. 2 (2006): 269-277.

  • M. Fang, D. Chen, and C. S. Yang, “Dietary Polyphenols May Affect DNA Methylation,” Journal of Nutrition 137, no. 1 suppl. (2007): 223S-228S.

  • L. A. Tucker, “Caffeine Consumption and Telomere Length in Men and Women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES),” Nutrition and Metabolism 14 (2017): 10.

  • J. J. Liu, M. Crous-Bou, E. Giovannucci, and I. De Vivo, “Coffee Consumption Is Positively Associated with Longer Telomere Length in the Nurses’ Health Study,” Journal of Nutrition 146, no. 7 (2016): 1373-1378

  • R. Chan et al., "Chinese Tea Consumption is Associated with Longer Telomere Length in Elderly Chinese Men," British Journal of Nutrition 146, no. 7 (2010): 107-113

  • L. Ling, S. Gu, and Y. Cheng, “Resveratrol Activates Endogenous Cardiac Stem Cells and Improve Myocardial Regeneration following Acute Myocardial Infarction,” Molecular Medicine Reports 15, no. 3 (2017): 1188-1194.

  • H. L. Kim et al., " Promotion of Full-Thickness Wound Healing Using Epigallocatechiomega-3-O-gallate/Poly(Lactic-co-glycolic Acid) Membrane as Temporary Wound Dressing," Artficial Organs 38, no. 5 (2014): 411-417

  • Y. He et al., "Epigallocatechiomega-3-gallate Attenuates Cerebral Cortex Damage and Promotes Brain Regeneration in Acrylamide-Treated Rate," Food and Function 8, no. 6 (2017): 2275-2282

  • A. R. Kim et al., "Catechins Activate Muscle Stem Cells by Myf5 Induction and Stimulate Muscle Regeneration," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 489, no. 2 (2017): 142-148

  • C. L.  Shen et al., "Functions and Mechanisms of Green Tea Catechins in Regulating Bone Remodeling," Current Drug Targets 14, no. 13 (2013): 1619-1630

  • S. Li, H. Bian et al., "Chlorogenic Acid Protects MSCs against Oxidative Stress by Altering FOXO Family Genes and Activating Intrinsic Pathway," European Journal of Pharmacology 674, no. 2-3 (2012): 65-72

  • Komes, Draženka, and Arijana Bušić. "Antioxidants in coffee." Processing and impact on antioxidants in beverages. Academic Press, 2014. 25-32.

  • Rodrigo R, Miranda A, Vergara L. Modulation of endogenous antioxidant system by wine polyphenols in human disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412(5-6):410-424. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2010.11.034

  • Buettner D. The Blue Zones Solution: Eating and Living like the World's Healthiest People. Washington, DC: National Geographic Partners; 2017.

  • “GSTP1 Gene (Protein Coding),” GeneCards Human Gene Database, https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=GSTP1.

  • Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, R-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats. Neurochem Res 1998;23:667-673.

  • Yamada T, Terashima T, Kawano S, et al. Theanine, gamma-glutamylethylamide, a unique amino acid in tea leaves, modulates neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain striatum interstitium in conscious rats. Amino Acids 2009;36:21-27

  • Nobre AC, Rao A, Owen GN. L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008;17:167-168.

  • Apovian CM. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2004;292:978–9.

  • Stärkel P, Leclercq S, de Timary P, Schnabl B. Intestinal dysbiosis and permeability: the yin and yang in alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 2018 Jan 19;132(2):199-212. doi: 10.1042/CS20171055. PMID: 29352076.

  • Engen PA, Green SJ, Voigt RM, Forsyth CB, Keshavarzian A. The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: Alcohol Effects on the Composition of Intestinal Microbiota. Alcohol Res. 2015;37(2):223-36. PMID: 26695747; PMCID: PMC4590619.

  • Watson, Ronald R., et al. "Alcohol, immunomodulation, and disease." Alcohol and alcoholism 29.2 (1994): 131-139.

  • Lin WT, Kao YH, Sothern MS, Seal DW, Lee CH, Lin HY, Chen T, Tseng TS. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake, body mass index, and inflammation in US adults. Int J Public Health. 2020 Jan;65(1):45-53. doi: 10.1007/s00038-020-01330-5. Epub 2020 Jan 25. PMID: 31982934.

  • Lu, Yanmin, et al. "Alcohol promotes mammary tumor growth through activation of VEGF‑dependent tumor angiogenesis." Oncology letters 8.2 (2014): 673-678.

  • Schiano C, Grimaldi V, Franzese M, Fiorito C, De Nigris F, Donatelli F, Soricelli A, Salvatore M, Napoli C. Non-nutritional sweeteners effects on endothelial vascular function. Toxicol In Vitro. 2020 Feb;62:104694. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2019.104694. Epub 2019 Oct 23. PMID: 31655124.

  • Zakhari S. Alcohol metabolism and epigenetics changes. Alcohol Res. 2013;35(1):6-16.

  • J.A.McClain, D.M. Hayes, S.A. Morris, K. Nixon, “Adolescent Binge Alcohol Exposure Alters Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Proliferation in Rats: Effects on Cell Cycle Kinetics,” Journal of Comparative Neurology 519, no. 13 (2011): 2697-2710.

 

Step #4: Sleep Like You Mean It

  • Sandhu A, Seth M, Gurm HS Daylight savings time and myocardial infarction Open Heart 2014;1:e000019. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2013-000019

  • Tononi G, Cirelli C. Sleep and the price of plasticity: from synaptic and cellular homeostasis to memory consolidation and integration. Neuron. 2014;81(1):12-34. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.12.025

  • Raven F, Van der Zee EA, Meerlo P, Havekes R. The role of sleep in regulating structural plasticity and synaptic strength: Implications for memory and cognitive function. Sleep Med Rev. 2018;39:3-11. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2017.05.002

  • Gingerich SB, Seaverson ELD, Anderson DR. Association Between Sleep and Productivity Loss Among 598 676 Employees From Multiple Industries. Am J Health Promot. 2018;32(4):1091-1094. doi:10.1177/0890117117722517

  • Yin J, Jin X, Shan Z, et al. Relationship of Sleep Duration With All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6(9):e005947. Published 2017 Sep 9. doi:10.1161/JAHA.117.005947

  • Burschtin O, Wang J. Testosterone Deficiency and Sleep Apnea. Sleep Med Clin. 2016;11(4):525-529. doi:10.1016/j.jsmc.2016.08.003

  • Abu-Samak MS, Mohammad BA, Abu-Taha MI, Hasoun LZ, Awwad SH. Associations Between Sleep Deprivation and Salivary Testosterone Levels in Male University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study. Am J Mens Health. 2018;12(2):411-419. doi:10.1177/1557988317735412

  • Zhang W, Piotrowska K, Chavoshan B, Wallace J, Liu PY. Sleep Duration Is Associated With Testis Size in Healthy Young Men. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018;14(10):1757-1764. Published 2018 Oct 15. doi:10.5664/jcsm.7390

  • Ding C, Lim LL, Xu L, Kong APS. Sleep and Obesity. J Obes Metab Syndr. 2018;27(1):4-24. doi:10.7570/jomes.2018.27.1.4

  • van Dalfsen JH, Markus CR. The influence of sleep on human hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity: A systematic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2018;39:187-194. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2017.10.002

  • Holding BC, Sundelin T, Cairns P, Perrett DI, Axelsson J. The effect of sleep deprivation on objective and subjective measures of facial appearance. J Sleep Res. 2019;28(6):e12860. doi:10.1111/jsr.12860

  • Axelsson J, Sundelin T, Ingre M, Van Someren EJ, Olsson A, Lekander M. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people. BMJ. 2010;341:c6614. Published 2010 Dec 14. doi:10.1136/bmj.c6614

  • Simpson NS, Gibbs EL, Matheson GO. Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27(3):266-274. doi:10.1111/sms.12703

  • Walker MP. Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams. New York, NY: Scribner, an imprint of Simon & Schuster, Inc.; 2018.

  • Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Carroll JE. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;80(1):40-52. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.05.014

  • Emil K. Nilsson, Adrian E. Bostrom, Jessica Mwinyi, and Helgi B. Schioth, “Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression,” OMICS 20, no. 6 (2016): 334-342

  • G. V. Skuladottir, E. K. Nilsson, J. Mwinyi, and H. B. Schioth, “One-Night Sleep Deprivation Induces Changes in the DNA Methylation and Serum Activity Indices of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase in Young Healthy Men,” Lipids in Health and Disease 15, no. 1 (2016): 137.

  • Jessen NA, Munk AS, Lundgaard I, Nedergaard M. The Glymphatic System: A Beginner's Guide. Neurochem Res. 2015;40(12):2583-2599. doi:10.1007/s11064-015-1581-6

  • Cai, Denise J., et al. "REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106.25 (2009): 10130-10134.

  • van Dalfsen JH, Markus CR. The influence of sleep on human hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity: A systematic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2018;39:187-194. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2017.10.002

  • Walker MP. Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams. New York, NY: Scribner, an imprint of Simon & Schuster, Inc.; 2018.

  • Goodwin, Renee D., and Andrej Marusic. "Association between short sleep and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among adults in the general population." Sleep 31.8 (2008): 1097-1101.

  • Clear, James. ATOMIC HABITS: an Easy and Proven Way to Build Good Habits and Break Bad Ones. Place of publication not identified: Random House Business; 2019.

 

Step #5: Move Naturally & Play

  • Buettner D. The Blue Zones: 9 Lessons for Living Longer from the People Whove Lived the Longest. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic; 2012.

  • Hargrove T. Playing With Movement. Better Movement; 2019.

  • Erickson, Kirk I., et al. "Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108.7 (2011): 3017-3022.

  • Yogman M, Garner A, Hutchinson J, et al. The Power of Play: A Pediatric Role in Enhancing Development in Young Children. Pediatrics. 2018;142(3):e20182058. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-2058

  • Mailing, Lucy J., et al. "Exercise and the gut microbiome: a review of the evidence, potential mechanisms, and implications for human health." Exercise and sport sciences reviews 47.2 (2019): 75-85.

  • Chinsomboon, Jessica, et al. "The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α mediates exercise-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle." Proceedings of the national academy of sciences 106.50 (2009): 21401-21406.

  • M. Du et al., "Physical Activity, Sedenetary Behavior, and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Women," American Journal of Epidemiology 175, no. 5 (2012): 414-422

  • D. Ornish et al., “Increased Telomerase Activity and Cemprehensive Lifestyle Changes: A Pilot Study,” Lancet Oncology 9, no. 11 (2008): 1048-1057.

  • He, Congcong, Rhea Sumpter, Jr, and Beth Levine. "Exercise induces autophagy in peripheral tissues and in the brain." Autophagy 8.10 (2012): 1548-1551.

  • Brandt N, Gunnarsson TP, Bangsbo J, Pilegaard H. Exercise and exercise training-induced increase in autophagy markers in human skeletal muscle. Physiol Rep. 2018;6(7):e13651. doi:10.14814/phy2.13651

  • Etnier JL, Wideman L, Labban JD, et al. The Effects of Acute Exercise on Memory and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2016;38(4):331-340. doi:10.1123/jsep.2015-0335

  • Maass A, Düzel S, Brigadski T, et al. Relationships of peripheral IGF-1, VEGF and BDNF levels to exercise-related changes in memory, hippocampal perfusion and volumes in older adults. Neuroimage. 2016;131:142-154. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.084

  • de Sousa CV, Sales MM, Rosa TS, Lewis JE, de Andrade RV, Simões HG. The Antioxidant Effect of Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2017;47(2):277-293. doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0566-1

  • Lim SA, Cheong KJ. Regular Yoga Practice Improves Antioxidant Status, Immune Function, and Stress Hormone Releases in Young Healthy People: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Pilot Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2015;21(9):530-538. doi:10.1089/acm.2014.0044

  • Stonerock GL, Hoffman BM, Smith PJ, Blumenthal JA. Exercise as Treatment for Anxiety: Systematic Review and Analysis. Ann Behav Med. 2015;49(4):542-556. doi:10.1007/s12160-014-9685-9

  • Rubio-Arias JÁ, Marín-Cascales E, Ramos-Campo DJ, Hernandez AV, Pérez-López FR. Effect of exercise on sleep quality and insomnia in middle-aged women: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Maturitas. 2017;100:49-56. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.04.003

 

Step #6: Find Your Tribe

  • Buettner D. Thrive: Finding Happiness the Blue Zones Way: Seven Secrets from the World's Happiest People. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic; 2010.

  • Buettner D. The Blue Zones: 9 Lessons for Living Longer from the People Who've Lived the Longest. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic; 2012.

  • Leigh-Hunt N, Bagguley D, Bash K, et al. An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness. Public Health. 2017;152:157–171. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2017.07.035

  • Steptoe A, Shankar A, Demakakos P, Wardle J. Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2013;110(15):5797-5801. doi:10.1073/pnas.1219686110.

  • Shankar, A., McMunn, A., Banks, J., & Steptoe, A. (2011). Loneliness, social isolation, and behavioral and biological health indicators in older adults. Health Psychology, 30(4), 377–385. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022826

  • Moeller AH, Foerster S, Wilson ML, Pusey AE, Hahn BH, Ochman H. Social behavior shapes the chimpanzee pan-microbiome. Sci Adv. 2016 Jan 15;2(1):e1500997. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1500997. PMID: 26824072; PMCID: PMC4730854.

  • Friends and Family May Play a Role in Obesity. National Institutes of Health. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/friends-family-may-play-role-obesity. Published July 6, 2015. Accessed April 15, 2020.

  • Shankar, A., McMunn, A., Banks, J., & Steptoe, A. (2011). Loneliness, social isolation, and behavioral and biological health indicators in older adults. Health Psychology, 30(4), 377–385. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022826

  • Cacioppo, J.T., & Hawkley, L.C. (2003). Social Isolation and Health, with an Emphasis on Underlying Mechanisms. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46(3), S39-S52. doi:10.1353/pbm.2003.0049.

  • Inspired by: Buettner D. Thrive: Finding Happiness the Blue Zones Way: Seven Secrets from the World's Happiest People. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic; 2010.

 

Step #7: Embrace Discomfort

  • Wei Q, Lee JH, Wang H, et al. Adiponectin is required for maintaining normal body temperature in a cold environment. BMC Physiol. 2017;17(1):8. Published 2017 Oct 23. doi:10.1186/s12899-017-0034-7

  • Fenzl A, Kiefer FW. Brown adipose tissue and thermogenesis. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2014;19(1):25-37. doi:10.1515/hmbci-2014-0022

  • Heinonen I, Laukkanen JA. Effects of heat and cold on health, with special reference to Finnish sauna bathing. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2018;314(5):R629-R638. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00115.2017

  • Kukkonen-Harjula, K., and K. Kauppinen. "How the sauna affects the endocrine system." Annals of Clinical Research 20.4 (1988): 262.

  • Raison CL, Knight JM, Pariante C. Interleukin (IL)-6: A good kid hanging out with bad friends (and why sauna is good for health). Brain Behav Immun. 2018;73:1-2. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2018.06.008

  • Heinonen I, Laukkanen JA. Effects of heat and cold on health, with special reference to Finnish sauna bathing. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2018;314(5):R629-R638. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00115.2017

 

Step #8: Practice Spirituality

  • N. S. Schutte and J. M. Malouff, “ A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Telomerase Activity,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 42 (2014): 45-48.

  • P. Kaliman et al., "Rapid Changes in Histone Deacetylases and Inflammatory Gene Espression in Expert Meditators," Psychoneuroendocrinology 40 (2014): 96-107

  • Rao KS, Chakraharti SK, Dongare VS, et al. Antiaging Effects of an Intensive Mind and Body Therapeutic Program through Enhancement of Telomerase Activity and Adult Stem Cell Counts. J Stem Cells. 2015;10(2):107-125.

Water
Sleep
Move Naturally
Tribe
Discomfort
Spirituality

Conclusion: The Full List

  • No references in this addendum

Addendum #1: Splurge List

  • No references in this addendum

 

Addendum #2: Common Toxins

  • Rubin BS. Bisphenol A: an endocrine disruptor with widespread exposure and multiple effects. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011 Oct;127(1-2):27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2011.05.002. Epub 2011 May 13. PMID: 21605673.

  • Sanchez de Badajoz E, Lage-Sánchez JM, Sánchez-Gallegos P. Endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer. Arch Esp Urol. 2017 Apr;70(3):331-335. English, Spanish. PMID: 28422034.

  • Kabir ER, Rahman MS, Rahman I. A review on endocrine disruptors and their possible impacts on human health. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Jul;40(1):241-58. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2015.06.009. Epub 2015 Jun 9. PMID: 26164742.

Addendum #3: Movement Games

  • No references in this addendum

 

Addendum #4: Mobility Check-up

  • Cook G. Movement: Functional Movement Systems: Screening, Assessment and Corrective Strategies. Santa Cruz, CA: On Target Publications; 2017.

  • Cook G. Athletic Body in Balance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2005. Liebenson C. Functional Training Handbook. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2014.

  • Corre EL. The Practice of Natural Movement: Reclaim Power, Health, and Freedom. Auberry, Calif. USA: Victory Belt Publishing Inc.; 2019.

  • Starrett K, Cordoza G. Becoming a Supple Leopard: the Ultimate Guide to Resolving Pain, Preventing Injury, and Optimizing Athletic Performance. Las Vegas, NV: Victory Belt Publishing; 2015.

  • Brito LB, Ricardo DR, Araújo DS, Ramos PS, Myers J, Araújo CG. Ability to sit and rise from the floor as a predictor of all-cause mortality. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2014 Jul;21(7):892-8. doi: 10.1177/2047487312471759. Epub 2012 Dec 13. PMID: 23242910.

Conclusion
Splurge List
Common Toxins
Movement Games
Mobility Check-up
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